Presenting a single person who will benefit from the charitable donation; rather than presenting a larger group, a vague unidentifiable beneficiary, or presenting statistics

Alternative tool name:

Tool variation:

Category: Info/communications

Sub-category: Bias

Relevant theories: Scope insensitivity, Dual systems: hot/cold, Identifiable victims bias

Type of evidence: Lab-charity, Hypothetical/intentional experiment, Meta-analysis/lit survey, Lab-charity, Meta-analysis/lit survey, Correlational-observational, Hypothetical/intentional experiment, Causal-observational (IV etc)

Evidence strength (ad hoc assessment): 8

Main findings

Portraying an individual (child) raises more than conveying the total number affected. It also raises more than portraying multiple individuals.


“Spillovers?” Minimal evidence on whether IVE increases generosity to those other than the identified individual. (Bergh, 2018; see Erlandsson, Björklund, and Bäckström, 2015)

Practical relevance

Use cases


Often relevant

Key papers

Secondary papers

Contributors David Reinstein

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  • tools/individualidentifiable_victim.txt
  • Last modified: 2019/03/16 23:01
  • by katja