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tables:tools [2019/02/27 14:28]
david
tables:tools [2019/03/16 23:00] (current)
katja
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 | [[tools:​Contingent match|Contingent match]] | <popover content="​Material inducements to donate (or things that could be perceived as such). Various types of rewards for (potential) donors."​ trigger='​hover'>​Incentives/​gifts</​popover>​ | Large donors (for example) might agree to match all donations made if a particular threshold is reached, or if there is a particular response rate (share of people who donate). | One paper finds that a match contingent on a 75% participation rate was more effective than a standard match and also more effective than no match. | [[papers:​Contingent Match Incentives Increase Donations|(Anik ea, '14)]] | | [[tools:​Contingent match|Contingent match]] | <popover content="​Material inducements to donate (or things that could be perceived as such). Various types of rewards for (potential) donors."​ trigger='​hover'>​Incentives/​gifts</​popover>​ | Large donors (for example) might agree to match all donations made if a particular threshold is reached, or if there is a particular response rate (share of people who donate). | One paper finds that a match contingent on a 75% participation rate was more effective than a standard match and also more effective than no match. | [[papers:​Contingent Match Incentives Increase Donations|(Anik ea, '14)]] |
 | [[tools:​Info on recipients deservingness|Info on recipients'​ deservingness]] | <popover content="​Providing factual information,​ as well as emotional and descriptive material... ​ on the charity, it's work, the cause, the beneficiaries,​ other donors, it's effectiveness and efficiency, etc." trigger='​hover'>​Info/​communications</​popover>​ | A fundraiser could give donors information about a particular charity beneficiary (e.g., a homeless person). Donors might use this to determine whether a recipient is deserving of help. | "​Dictators [charitable giving] who acquire information mostly use it to withhold resources from less-preferred types, leading to a drastic decline in aggregate transfers";​ however, there are selection effects. The exogenous provision of information seems to increase donations overall. | [[papers:​Truth In Giving Experimental Evidence On The Welfare Effects Of Informed Giving To The Poor|(Fong & O, '11)]] | | [[tools:​Info on recipients deservingness|Info on recipients'​ deservingness]] | <popover content="​Providing factual information,​ as well as emotional and descriptive material... ​ on the charity, it's work, the cause, the beneficiaries,​ other donors, it's effectiveness and efficiency, etc." trigger='​hover'>​Info/​communications</​popover>​ | A fundraiser could give donors information about a particular charity beneficiary (e.g., a homeless person). Donors might use this to determine whether a recipient is deserving of help. | "​Dictators [charitable giving] who acquire information mostly use it to withhold resources from less-preferred types, leading to a drastic decline in aggregate transfers";​ however, there are selection effects. The exogenous provision of information seems to increase donations overall. | [[papers:​Truth In Giving Experimental Evidence On The Welfare Effects Of Informed Giving To The Poor|(Fong & O, '11)]] |
-| [[tools:​Individualidentifiable victim|Individual/​identifiable victim]] | <popover content="​Providing factual information,​ as well as emotional and descriptive material... ​ on the charity, it's work, the cause, the beneficiaries,​ other donors, it's effectiveness and efficiency, etc." trigger='​hover'>​Info/​communications</​popover>​ | Presenting a single person ​ who will benefit from the charitable donation; ​ rather than presenting a larger group, a vague  on identifiable ​beneficiary,​ or presenting statistics | Portray ​an individual (child) raises more than conveying the total number affected. It also raises more than portraying multiple individuals. | [[papers:Helping A Victim Or Helping The Victim Altruism And Identifiability|(Small & L, '03)]], [[papers:​The Identifiable Victim Effect ​Causes And Boundary Conditions|(Kogut R, '11)]], [[papers:​Sympathy And Callousness The Impact Of Deliberative Thought On Donations To Identifiable And Statistical Victims|(Small ea, '​07)a]] |+| [[tools:​Individualidentifiable victim|Individual/​identifiable victim]] | <popover content="​Providing factual information,​ as well as emotional and descriptive material... ​ on the charity, it's work, the cause, the beneficiaries,​ other donors, it's effectiveness and efficiency, etc." trigger='​hover'>​Info/​communications</​popover>​ | Presenting a single person ​ who will benefit from the charitable donation; ​ rather than presenting a larger group, a vague unidentifiable ​beneficiary,​ or presenting statistics | Portraying ​an individual (child) raises more than conveying the total number affected. It also raises more than portraying multiple individuals. | [[papers:Argumentinconsistency in charity appeals Statistical information about the scope of the problem decrease helping toward a single identified victim but not helping toward many nonidentified victims in a refugee crisis context|(Erlandsson ea, '16)]], [[papers:​The Identifiable Victim Effect ​A MetaAnalytic Review|(Lee F, '16)]], [[papers:​Sympathy And Callousness The Impact Of Deliberative Thought On Donations To Identifiable And Statistical Victims|(Small ea, '07)a]], [[papers:​The Identifiable Victim Effect Causes And Boundary Conditions|(Kogut & R, '​11)]],​ [[papers:​Helping A Victim Or Helping The Victim Altruism And Identifiability|(Small & L, '03)]] |
 | [[tools:​Unconditional gift|Unconditional gift]] | <popover content="​Material inducements to donate (or things that could be perceived as such). Various types of rewards for (potential) donors."​ trigger='​hover'>​Incentives/​gifts</​popover>​ | Charities or fundraisers may offer a gift to potential donors that  they can keep whether or not they donate. ​ For example, a charity for African development projects may include ​ a small beaded necklace crafted in the villages they  are supporting along with each solicitation mailing. | Giving a small gift to potential donors increases giving. | [[papers:​Gift Exchange In The Field|(Falk,​ '07)]] | | [[tools:​Unconditional gift|Unconditional gift]] | <popover content="​Material inducements to donate (or things that could be perceived as such). Various types of rewards for (potential) donors."​ trigger='​hover'>​Incentives/​gifts</​popover>​ | Charities or fundraisers may offer a gift to potential donors that  they can keep whether or not they donate. ​ For example, a charity for African development projects may include ​ a small beaded necklace crafted in the villages they  are supporting along with each solicitation mailing. | Giving a small gift to potential donors increases giving. | [[papers:​Gift Exchange In The Field|(Falk,​ '07)]] |
 | [[tools:​Pledgingprecommitment|Pledging/​precommitment]] | <popover content="​How much to ask for, what do you suggest people donate, how do you frame this, etc..."​ trigger='​hover'>​Choice architecture,​ size/nature of ask</​popover>​ | Ask for a pledge or promised commitment to donate (a particular amount, or in general) before making the *actual* ask requiring the actual commitment of money. |  | [[papers:​Promises undone How committed pledges impact donations to charity|(Fosgaard & A, '18)]] | | [[tools:​Pledgingprecommitment|Pledging/​precommitment]] | <popover content="​How much to ask for, what do you suggest people donate, how do you frame this, etc..."​ trigger='​hover'>​Choice architecture,​ size/nature of ask</​popover>​ | Ask for a pledge or promised commitment to donate (a particular amount, or in general) before making the *actual* ask requiring the actual commitment of money. |  | [[papers:​Promises undone How committed pledges impact donations to charity|(Fosgaard & A, '18)]] |
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 | [[tools:​Teach Identifiable victims bias|Teach "​Identifiable victims bias"​]] | <popover content="​Providing factual information,​ as well as emotional and descriptive material... ​ on the charity, it's work, the cause, the beneficiaries,​ other donors, it's effectiveness and efficiency, etc." trigger='​hover'>​Info/​communications</​popover>​ | A fundraiser can explain that people do tend to donate more to a single "​identifiable victim"​ than to "​statistical victims" ​ or large groups. One might imagine that this  "​de-biasing" ​ would make them more responsive to statistical information ​ about effectiveness and the magnitude of a problem. | Small et al. (2007): teaching people about the '​identifiable victim bias' reduced donations towards identifiable victims, but did not increase giving to statistical victims (significant interaction). ​ Kogut & R, '05b: When given *choices* between identified individual and identified group, people often choose the latter. | [[papers:​Sympathy And Callousness The Impact Of Deliberative Thought On Donations To Identifiable And Statistical Victims|(Small ea, '​07)a]],​ [[papers:​Sympathy And Callousness The Impact Of Deliberative Thought On Donations To Identifiable And Statistical Victims|(Small ea, '​07)b]] | | [[tools:​Teach Identifiable victims bias|Teach "​Identifiable victims bias"​]] | <popover content="​Providing factual information,​ as well as emotional and descriptive material... ​ on the charity, it's work, the cause, the beneficiaries,​ other donors, it's effectiveness and efficiency, etc." trigger='​hover'>​Info/​communications</​popover>​ | A fundraiser can explain that people do tend to donate more to a single "​identifiable victim"​ than to "​statistical victims" ​ or large groups. One might imagine that this  "​de-biasing" ​ would make them more responsive to statistical information ​ about effectiveness and the magnitude of a problem. | Small et al. (2007): teaching people about the '​identifiable victim bias' reduced donations towards identifiable victims, but did not increase giving to statistical victims (significant interaction). ​ Kogut & R, '05b: When given *choices* between identified individual and identified group, people often choose the latter. | [[papers:​Sympathy And Callousness The Impact Of Deliberative Thought On Donations To Identifiable And Statistical Victims|(Small ea, '​07)a]],​ [[papers:​Sympathy And Callousness The Impact Of Deliberative Thought On Donations To Identifiable And Statistical Victims|(Small ea, '​07)b]] |
 | [[tools:​Seed donations|Seed donations]] | <popover content="​Material inducements to donate (or things that could be perceived as such). Various types of rewards for (potential) donors."​ trigger='​hover'>​Incentives/​gifts</​popover>​ | An external source (large donor, foundation, or government) may make a large  initial donation towards the project, and this can be announced to later potential donors. | (More) seed money increases donations (propensity,​ amounts) in some studies. Increased '​proximity to a goal' seems to increase donations. | [[papers:​Matched Fundraising Evidence From A Natural Field Experiment|(Huck & R, '​11)]],​ [[papers:​The Effects Of Seed Money And Refunds On Charitable Giving Experimental Evidence From A University Capital Campaign|(List & L, '02)]] | | [[tools:​Seed donations|Seed donations]] | <popover content="​Material inducements to donate (or things that could be perceived as such). Various types of rewards for (potential) donors."​ trigger='​hover'>​Incentives/​gifts</​popover>​ | An external source (large donor, foundation, or government) may make a large  initial donation towards the project, and this can be announced to later potential donors. | (More) seed money increases donations (propensity,​ amounts) in some studies. Increased '​proximity to a goal' seems to increase donations. | [[papers:​Matched Fundraising Evidence From A Natural Field Experiment|(Huck & R, '​11)]],​ [[papers:​The Effects Of Seed Money And Refunds On Charitable Giving Experimental Evidence From A University Capital Campaign|(List & L, '02)]] |
-| [[tools:​Reveal previous donations|Reveal previous donations]] | <popover content="​Involving networks of friends, family, colleagues, peers; sharing information about donations in various ways; community activities"​ trigger='​hover'>​Social</​popover>​ | Tell potential donors about previous individual or average contributions; ​ perhaps report selectively to make these seem particularly large. Donors ​ may respond by giving more when they hear of larger previous donations. | Revealing larger previous donations (in a range) increases giving; larger targets can be ineffective | [[papers:​Brother Can You Spare A Dime Peer Pressure In Charitable Solicitation|(Meer,​ '​11)]],​ [[papers:A Field Experiment In Charitable Contribution The Impact Of Social Information On The Voluntary Provision Of Public Goods|(Shang & C, '​09)]],​ [[papers:​Anonymity Reciprocity And Conformity Evidence From Voluntary Contributions To A National Park In Costa Rica|(Alpizar ea, '​08)]],​ [[papers:​Social Comparisons And ProSocial Behavior Testing ​Textquotedblleftconditional Cooperationtextquotedblright ​In A Field Experiment|(Frey & M, '​04)]],​ [[papers:​How Is Donation Behaviour Affected By The Donations Of Others|(Martin & R, '​08)]],​ [[papers:​Peer Effects In Charitable Giving Evidence From The Running Field|(Smith ea, '14)]] |+| [[tools:​Reveal previous donations|Reveal previous donations]] | <popover content="​Involving networks of friends, family, colleagues, peers; sharing information about donations in various ways; community activities"​ trigger='​hover'>​Social</​popover>​ | Tell potential donors about previous individual or average contributions; ​ perhaps report selectively to make these seem particularly large. Donors ​ may respond by giving more when they hear of larger previous donations. | Revealing larger previous donations (in a range) increases giving; larger targets can be ineffective | [[papers:​Brother Can You Spare A Dime Peer Pressure In Charitable Solicitation|(Meer,​ '​11)]],​ [[papers:A Field Experiment In Charitable Contribution The Impact Of Social Information On The Voluntary Provision Of Public Goods|(Shang & C, '​09)]],​ [[papers:​Anonymity Reciprocity And Conformity Evidence From Voluntary Contributions To A National Park In Costa Rica|(Alpizar ea, '​08)]],​ [[papers:​Social Comparisons And ProSocial Behavior Testing ​conditional Cooperation ​In A Field Experiment|(Frey & M, '​04)]],​ [[papers:​How Is Donation Behaviour Affected By The Donations Of Others|(Martin & R, '​08)]],​ [[papers:​Peer Effects In Charitable Giving Evidence From The Running Field|(Smith ea, '14)]] |
 | [[tools:​Visibilitypublicity|Visibility/​publicity]] | <popover content="​Involving networks of friends, family, colleagues, peers; sharing information about donations in various ways; community activities"​ trigger='​hover'>​Social</​popover>​ | Publicize (larger) donations and the donors, make these visible to other donors automatically or by default (allowing opt-out); ​ make this natural and encourage this. | Varied evidence that people '​sometimes'​ donate more when donations are visible (esp males) or when told of recognition possibility;​ larger amounts (Alpizar ea) | [[papers:​The Prestige Motive For Making Charitable Transfers|(Harbaugh,​ '​98)]],​ [[papers:​Anonymity In Giving In A Natural ContextA Field Experiment In 30 Churches|(Soetevent,​ '05)]] | | [[tools:​Visibilitypublicity|Visibility/​publicity]] | <popover content="​Involving networks of friends, family, colleagues, peers; sharing information about donations in various ways; community activities"​ trigger='​hover'>​Social</​popover>​ | Publicize (larger) donations and the donors, make these visible to other donors automatically or by default (allowing opt-out); ​ make this natural and encourage this. | Varied evidence that people '​sometimes'​ donate more when donations are visible (esp males) or when told of recognition possibility;​ larger amounts (Alpizar ea) | [[papers:​The Prestige Motive For Making Charitable Transfers|(Harbaugh,​ '​98)]],​ [[papers:​Anonymity In Giving In A Natural ContextA Field Experiment In 30 Churches|(Soetevent,​ '05)]] |
 | [[tools:​Impact per  info|"​Impact"​ (per $) info]] | <popover content="​Providing factual information,​ as well as emotional and descriptive material... ​ on the charity, it's work, the cause, the beneficiaries,​ other donors, it's effectiveness and efficiency, etc." trigger='​hover'>​Info/​communications</​popover>​ | A charity, fundraiser or site could present information on how effective/​impactful it is,  in terms of the amount of "final outcome" ​ it achieves per dollar donated, or equivalently, ​ the cost per unit of this outcome achieved. ​ E.g., the Against Malaria Foundation could report GiveWell'​s asessment that for every $3280 donated, one life is saved, on average. Loosely speaking, according to the Effective Altruism movement, this should be the donor'​s critical concern in choosing a charity. | Karlan and Wood (2017): adding scientific impact info (including some quantitative information;​ and removing emotional stimulus in part) had a small/​insignificant net effect: increased gifts from large prior donors, reduced gifts from small prior donors. | [[papers:​The Effect Of Effectiveness Donor Response To Aid Effectiveness In A Direct Mail Fundraising Experiment|(Karlan & W, '​17)]],​ [[papers:​Sympathy And Callousness The Impact Of Deliberative Thought On Donations To Identifiable And Statistical Victims|(Small ea, '​07)b]] | | [[tools:​Impact per  info|"​Impact"​ (per $) info]] | <popover content="​Providing factual information,​ as well as emotional and descriptive material... ​ on the charity, it's work, the cause, the beneficiaries,​ other donors, it's effectiveness and efficiency, etc." trigger='​hover'>​Info/​communications</​popover>​ | A charity, fundraiser or site could present information on how effective/​impactful it is,  in terms of the amount of "final outcome" ​ it achieves per dollar donated, or equivalently, ​ the cost per unit of this outcome achieved. ​ E.g., the Against Malaria Foundation could report GiveWell'​s asessment that for every $3280 donated, one life is saved, on average. Loosely speaking, according to the Effective Altruism movement, this should be the donor'​s critical concern in choosing a charity. | Karlan and Wood (2017): adding scientific impact info (including some quantitative information;​ and removing emotional stimulus in part) had a small/​insignificant net effect: increased gifts from large prior donors, reduced gifts from small prior donors. | [[papers:​The Effect Of Effectiveness Donor Response To Aid Effectiveness In A Direct Mail Fundraising Experiment|(Karlan & W, '​17)]],​ [[papers:​Sympathy And Callousness The Impact Of Deliberative Thought On Donations To Identifiable And Statistical Victims|(Small ea, '​07)b]] |
  
  • tables/tools.txt
  • Last modified: 2019/03/16 23:00
  • by katja